Scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Commonwealth Fusion Systems said they are in the process of building an experimental artificial sun called SPARC. Their reactor is to be the first in the world to achieve a positive energy balance, which means that it will produce more energy during operation than it will use to keep the plasma heated.
Americans do not throw words to the wind. Their nuclear fusion reactor is one of the most advanced in the world today. The project was initiated in 2018. Its first tests are to begin in the middle of next year. Scientists are sure that in the first phase, SPARC will break all world records for such devices, and in 2025 it will achieve commercial efficiency. This will mean that the Americans will be up to 10 years ahead of the EU in this regard. ITER is to be ready only in 2035.
If this happens, we will be able to talk about an event that will be written on the pages of human history. Nuclear fusion reactors are to allow countries that have them to produce cheap and environmentally friendly energy for development, which beats the head in terms of efficiency not only of fossil fuels, but also technologies for obtaining energy from renewable sources.
The thermonuclear reaction is a phenomenon that combines two lighter nuclei into the nuclei of heavier elements. Fusion releases enormous amounts of energy. It is the use of this tremendous energy that is the goal of many countries. It should be emphasized here that such reactors are completely safe. Unlike nuclear reactors, the former combine elements, not their decay. Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form heavier isotopes: deuterium and tritium, followed by helium. At the same time, an unimaginable amount of energy is emitted. Just one glass of water is expected to yield as much as half a million barrels of crude oil.
In order to fuse at all, the particles must be tamed under a strong magnetic field and at high temperatures. American scientists from MIT and Commonwealth Fusion Systems intend to achieve a positive energy balance in their SPARC reactor for the first time in history, at a temperature of over noob homepage million degrees Celsius, in just 3 years, and in another 2 years the system is to be efficient enough that it can be hooked up to the national power grid and start producing energy for millions of Americans.